Previous Integration Research and Reports

Below are reports and articles related to other nations' integration experiences.

Restrictions on Assignments of Military Women: A Brief History

The National Women's Law Center

Summary:

This report "provides background information on the history and status of policy governing assignment of military women."

Women in the Military: Gender Integration at Sea

Patricia J. Thomas

Summary:

     This 1981 paper examined the process of gender integration following the admittance of women onto U.S. Navy ships after the 1978 modifications to the Federal Code.

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994: Subtitle D—Women in the Service

Summary:

This is an analysis of the repeal of the Statutory Restriction on the Assignment of Women in the Navy and Marine Corps in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994.

Women in Combat References

Summary:

A list of major articles and reports pertaining to women in combat.

Women in Combat

Anthony King

Summary:

Published in 2013, this report is focused on learning from issues other countries faced as the UK ponders full integration.  It concluded that the rise of professionalism was the key to combat integration.  In mixed gender FOB and patrol situations, many of the perceived issues of unit cohesion were not relevant because professional not social cohesion were key.

Women in Combat Compendium

Michele M. Putko, Douglas V. Johnson II

Summary:

This study includes an opinion survey of students in the U.S. Army War College, both male and female, which reflects current perceptions on women in combat. The authors use the findings to show that the ground combat exclusion policy is no longer relevant.

Assessing the Implications of Possible Changes to Women in Service Restrictions: Practices of Foreign Militaries and Other Organizations

Annemarie Randazzo-Matsel, Jennifer Schulte, Jeninifer Yopp

Summary:

This report published in 2012 examines the policies and practices of the foreign militaries of Australia, United Kingdom, Canada and Israel as well as firefighting and SWAT policing to determine what can be learned about women's physical abilities and the effects of gender integration on unit dynamics.

Women in Ground Close Combat Roles: The Experiences of other Nations and a Review of the Academic Literature

Paul Cawkill, Alison Rogers, Sarah Knight, & Laura Spear, Human Systems Group/Defence Science and Technology Laboratory UK

Summary:

Published in 2009 this report was produced by the British Ministry of Defence to analyze the gender integration of 17 countries’ armed forces. Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States were used as cases, with varying results.

Women in  Combat

George H. Quester

Summary:

Published in 1977, this article comments on both the societal and physiological concerns about allowing women into combat.  The author examines both global and US domestic attitudes about allowing women in combat positions.

Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

Gary Schaub, Jr., Flemming Pradhan-Blach, Esben Salling Larsen,  Josefine Kühnel Larsen,Centre For Military Studies University Of Copenhagen

Summary:

Published in October 2012, this report gives a brief overview of the state of the Danish Forces, which despite societal acceptance of ethnic and gendered integration lags behind other NATO nations in recruitment and retention levels.  The report then analyses the Scandinavian Model which Denmark falls under, and finds that it “might promote gender equality but has not succeeded in facilitating female military participation.” The report proceeds to analyze the US, Canadian and British approaches as they have been some of the most successful.

Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities

A collection of papers presented at the RTO Human Factors and Medicine Panel (HFM) Symposium held in Antalya, Turkey on 13-15 October 2008

Summary:

This is a collection of 26 papers on the impact of gender differences in the military.  Each paper has a unique method and topic, ranging from sexual assaults in the Canadian Forces to female fat metabolic rates.  While five years old, many of these papers still provide useful scientific insights into issues of gender neutral standards and lessons learned from other nations’ integration experiences.

Differences in Physical Fitness of Male and Female Recruits in Gender-Integrated Army Basic Training

Ran Yanovich, Rachel Evans, Eran Israeli, Naama Constantini, Nurit Sharvit, Drorit Merkel, Yoram Epstein, and Daniel S. Moran, Medical Science Sports Exercise

Summary:

Published in 2008, this article analysed the physical fitness of an IDF battalion during Basic Training.  The battalion was 60% female and the article focuses on the cost/benefit of gender integration in Basic Training.  The article found that “gender-integrated BT improves most fitness elements in both male and female recruits.”

Women And Leadership In The Canadian Forces: Perspectives And Experience

Karen D. Davis, Canadian Defence Academy

Summary:

This book, published in 2007, is a series of first-hand accounts of gender integration issues in the Canadian Forces.  The book is set so each chapter covers a topic, such as the history female leadership in the CF, written by a female member of the CF.  This book is best used as a qualitative balance to other research and while full of lessons, it is a subjective accounting of gender issues in the CF.

Challenge and Change in the Military: Gender and Diversity Issues

Ed. Franklin C. Pinch,Allister T. MacIntyre, Phillis Browne, and Alan C. Okros, Canadian Defence Academy

Summary:

This book, published in 2004, contains a series of scholarly articles that provide insights into diversity and gender integration in the Canadian Armed Forces.

Implementing a Gender Perspective in Military Organisations and Operations: The Swedish Armed Forces Model

Robert Egnell, Peter Hojem, Hannes Berts

Summary:

Published in 2012, this report highlights the implementation of a gender perspective in the Swedish Armed Forces and offers recommendations to improve the status quo.

Men and Women in Space

 Gloria R. Leon, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine

Summary:

This article published in 2005, reviews and analyzes the intergroup dynamics of mixed gender versus, single gender teams under high stress.  The article concluded that while men often confided their emotional issues in women in mixed gender groups, there was rarely a reciprocal relationship.  Women also acted as the ‘cooler’ in the groups, reducing stress and preventing arguments.  However these positive attributes for the group, meant that women had increased emotional burdens and stresses during expeditions.

Women in the Portuguese Military :From Visibility to ‘Eclipse’

Helena Carreiras, Current Sociology

Summary:

Published in 2002, this is an very thorough study of the state of women in the Portuguese Military, with an emphasis on the history.

Affirming Gender Equality: The Challenges Facing the South African Armed Forces

Lindy Heinecken Current Sociology

Summary:

This article begins with several pages outlining the various feminist theories perspectives’ on women in the military.  Women in SANDF never had combat restrictions, and uses gender-neutral physical standards.  A unique issue in SANDF is the current and historical racial tensions that are not present in most other societies this means that many of the gender issues are beneath by race issues.

Women in the South Korean Military

Doo-Seung Hong, Current Sociology

Summary:

Published in 2002, this article is a study of the history of and attitudes toward women in the South Korean Army.  The article is thorough and provides and interesting non-Western perspective to gender integration.  The article concludes that despite the massive progress made in South Korea, women are still stereotyped in the military, which sometimes earns them more important roles, but they are fundamentally seen as different and not equal.

Law Enforcement Recruitment Toolkit

  Summary:

This document examines the current practices of recruitment and how they can be improved.  There is specific focus given to improving diversity--including gender diversity.

Mobilizing the Community for Minority Recruitment and Selection

Summary:

This document outlines the Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services' model to enhance recruitment and placement of minorities.

The Future of Women in Policing

International Association of Chiefs of Police

Summary:

This report details the findings of a committee composed of women law enforcement executives throughout the US regarding the role of women in policing and issues of concern.

Challenge and Change in the Military: Gender and Diversity Issues

Ed. Franklin C. Pinch, Allister T. MacIntyre, Phyllis Browne, and Alan C. Okros

Summary:

Published in 2004, this is a compilation of articles pertaining to the role of women in the military.  The vast majority of the article examine the case of the Canadian Forces.

Women in Combat Compendium

Ed. Michele M. Putko and Douglas V. Johnson II

Summary:

This publication from the U.S. Army War College contains eight articles examining different aspects of the Combat Exclusion Policy and the role of women in the US military.

Project Athena III

Ed. Major Jerome Adams

Summary:

Published in 1979, this document details the actions taken to integrate women into the Corps of Cadets at West Point Academy.

The Quiet Revolution: Repeal of the Exclusionary Statutes in Combat Aviation

Alice W.W. Parham

Summary:

This report, published in 2006, examines the success of over a decade of integration in combat aviation since the repeal of exclusionary statues in 1993. The author concludes that integration and military readiness are not mutually exclusive, and that military necessity engenders women's increased participation in combat.

Implementing a Gender Perspective in Military Organisations and Operations: The Swedish Armed Forces Model

Robert Egnell, Petter Hojem, Hannes Berts

Summary:

In this piece, the process of developing a gender perspective within the Swedish Armed Forces is explained and analyzed.

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