Below is a collection of reports and articles relating to gender neutral occupational standards.


The Framing of Men’s Opposition to Women’s Equality in the Military

Carol Cohn


     This article examines a dominant form used by male officers to frame their opposition to women serving in the U.S. military: the PT (physical training) protest.

Examination of Pull-Ups and Push-Ups as Possible Alternatives to the Flexed Arm Hang on the Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test

Brian McGuire, Ross R. Vickers, Jr., John H. Reynolds, Anne Curry, Timothy Bockelman, and Ryan Massimo


     “The Flexed-Arm Hang (FAH) has been an event on the Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test since 1975. This study evaluated alternative tests that would avoid deficiencies in the FAH as a test of dynamic upper body strength and determine the best test of dynamic upper body strength for female Marines within certain parameters (e.g., minimal equipment, training for the test enhances physical performance in dynamic military tasks).”

Equality in Fitness Standards: The Canadian Armed Forces Perspective

Dr. Tara Reilly


     This presentation was delivered by Dr. Tara Reilly to the Combat Integration Initiative Working Group 28 June 2013. The presentation provides background for and outlines the Occupational Fitness Standards used by the Canadian Forces.

Duped by the “Frailty Myth:” USMC Gender Based Physical Fitness Standards

Major Misty J. Posey, United States Marine Corps


     In this paper, Major Posey examines the physical fitness standards for the U.S. Marine Corps. She argues that “due to a lack of strength conditioning, female Marines are far from their physical potential and risk being a detriment to their unit.  The USMC will be a better fighting organization if the PFT standards are updated to incorporate a suitable metric, such as pullups, for measuring and developing upperbody strength in female Marines.  The USMC can dispel the frailty myth by eliminating genderbased performance requirements on the PFT.”

Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities

A collection of papers presented at the RTO Human Factors and Medicine Panel (HFM) Symposium held in Antalya, Turkey on 13-15 October 2008


        This is a collection of 26 papers on the impact of gender differences in the military.  Each paper has a unique method and topic, ranging from sexual assaults in the Canadian Forces to female fat metabolic rates.  While five years old, many of these papers still provide useful scientific insights into issues of gender neutral standards and lessons learned from other nations’ integration experiences.

Project FORCE Phase I Report – Executive Summary

Project FORCE Phase II Report – Executive Summary


     These executive summaries explain the results of the first two studies in a three part series regarding the physical demands and standards of the Canadian Forces.  The studies were intended to identify the essential tasks performed by all CF personnel and the demands of these tasks.  These findings would then aid in the development of physical standards for the CF.