U.S. Army

Below is a collection of research and documents pertaining to gender integration in the Army.

Signed AUSD(PR) Letters


These letters notify “that the Department of Defense (DoD) intends to assign women to previously closed positions in the Army.” This letter was supplemented by the list of MOSs below and the 19 April 2013 Army Implementation plan.

Master Position Descriptions for 89 MOS


“This reporting classification is to be used for general officers. It will be used to designate and classify manning table requirements for all officers in grade of brigadier general or higher. It will be used in place of the AOC for all general officers. General officers may have other skills for which they are qualified.”

Army Implementation Plan


This document is a “plan for integration of female leaders and soldiers based on the elimination of the 1994 Direct Ground Combat Definition and Assignment Rule (DGCAR).”

Gender Integration & Physical Demand Studies


This TRADOC briefing to DACOWITS on 4 Dec 2013 covered what the U.S. Army has done so far to study the integration of women into combat and plans for continued research on combat integration.

Soldier 2020

GEN Robert W. Cone


This document outlines the Soldier 2020 effort, which aims for the opening of previously closed positions and occupational specialties to women while maintaining combat effectiveness. This effort “seeks to remove as many barriers as possible and allow talented people—regardless of gender—to serve in any position in which they are capable of performing to standard.”

Gender Integration of Basic Combat Training and Career Intent of Enlisted First-Term Soldiers

Jennifer K. Lee, George Mason University Consortium Research Fellows Program, and Trueman R. Tremble, Jr., U.S. Army Research Institute


“The research here investigated differences between soldiers with single gender or gender-integrated basic training in their career intentions and Army adaptation over the full course of initial entry training (lET), that is, basic and advanced entry training. Analyses of variance revealed that differences by type of training and soldier gender were relatively small but tended to indicate more positive outcomes for the soldiers (males and females) having had gender-integrated basic training. Despite a slight decrease over time, responses at the end of lET remained positive, and the decline in adaptation tended to be less frequent for males with gender-integrated basic training. In general, the attitudes of soldiers in different training environments were similar and showed similar changes over time.”

Mixed-Gender Basic Training: The U.S. Army Experience, 1973-2004

Anne W. Chapman


This is a review of mixed-gender basic training between 1973 and 2004 published through the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). The review is broken down by era with subsections focused on the major, events, changes, and debates during that time.

Report of the Admission of Women to the U.S. Military Academy (Project Athena III)

Major Jerome Adams, U.S. Military Academy


“A comprehensive summary of the significant actions taken from the period May 1978 to May 1979 to integrate women into the Corps of Cadets at West Point. The monograph contains six major areas divided as chapters. The first chapter consists of a discussion about the admission of new cadets. Chapter two describes the first summer training. Chapter three includes a discussion of activities during the academic year. Chapter four highlights the second summer training experiences. Chapter five presents results of the third summer training, and chapter six describes ongoing programs, unresolved issues, and future problems. The monograph concludes that women are being effectively assimilated into the Corps of Cadets and that they are receiving the training and development which should help them succeed as future officers.”

MEMORANDUM FOR RECORD: Public Affairs Guidance for Army Special Operations Command, Project Diane


This Public Affairs Guidance (PAG) provides key messages, talking points and questions/answers related to the United States Army Special Operations Command’s (USASOC) implementation plan pertaining to opening positions to women in specific Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF) military occupational specialties (MOSs).

 Assessing the Assignment Policy for Army Women

Margaret C. Harrell, Laura Werber, Peter Schirmer, Bryan W. Hallmark, Jennifer Kavanagh, Daniel Gershwin, Paul Steinberg, RAND Corp


Published in 2007, this book was prepared for the DoD and covers the Army’s interpretation and application of the 1994 Assignment Policy.  The latter half of the book is dedicated to recommendations and outlook for future implementation of the policy.  This book focuses particularly on the unique situation in Iraq, with its nonlinear battlefield and culture specific issues.

U.S. Marine Corps

Below is a collection of research and documents pertaining to gender integration in the Marine Corps.

MCFIP White Letter 2014


In 2013, the Secretary of Defense rescinded the 1994 policy known as the Direct Ground Combat and Assignment Rule restricting women from assignments in “units whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground.” The Marine Corps was then directed to integrate females to the maximum extent possible.

December WISRR Update Brief to DACOWITS

Colonel Jon M. Aytes


“Briefing from the USMC on the status of Pillar One, Phase One of its WISR implementation plan, to include the steps as stated in the plan–validation of gender-neutral occupational standards (physical standards review, testing/research, development of physical screening tests); other research (the IOC experiment and review of all available data); and any added features such as the ITB experiment.”

CFT Purpose Scoresheet


“To assess a Marine’s physical capacity in a broad spectrum of combat related tasks. The CFT was specifically designed to evaluate strength, stamina, agility and coordination as well as overall anaerobic capacity. All Marines are required to complete a CFT once a year during Jul 1-Dec 31.”

Peacekeeping Training: Briefing to the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations


Presentation to the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations providing the findings of the 2012-13 Training Needs Assessment and its follow-up. Methods to support member states, peacekeeping missions, and senior management training are subsequently offered.

U.S. Marine Corps Assignment of Women to Ground Combat Units Research Plan


Purpose of this research: “A survey of the force has been conducted to gather input about potential changes to the current assignment policies related to female Marines. The results will assist the Commandant in making informed recommendations to the Secretary of Defense. The Center for Naval Analyses will also conduct a study to examine the possible effects on: recruiting, classification, entry-level training; assignments, promotions; implementation of gender-neutral tests, injury-associated costs; best practices of external organizations and occupations.”

Women in Combat Letter from the Cmdt USMC


Letter discussing the cancellation of the 1994 policy that restricted women from combat roles providing the perspective of the Cmdt USMC as well as explanations for this action.