Reconciling Two Key Frameworks: Feminist Foreign Policy and Women, Peace & Security

written by On May 23, 2022

By Joan Johnson-Freese and Susan Markham


There are currently two main frameworks regarding gender equality and women’s participation in international policy and conflict resolution: the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) framework, codified in the landmark United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 in 2000, and the feminist foreign policy framework (FFP) that became prominent in 2014 when Sweden became the first government to formally adopt a feminist foreign policy. Over the past decade, tension has existed between the civil society advocates who were/are involved in the development, passage, and implementation of UNSCR 1325 and those academics and practitioners who favor the newer feminist framework. Surprisingly (or not), an unpublished mapping exercise in 2019 between the two groups found very few people who worked on both frameworks or who were using the WPS framework as a foundation for the newer FFP. We argue here that the goals of both frameworks— gender equality and peace—are the same and that the tension largely rests on differences in approach. This piece provides background on both frameworks, what they have in common, some critiques, how they might approach current events, and recommendations on the way forward. We suggest that while these differences in approach are not insignificant, both frameworks would benefit from the greater acknowledgment of and closer coordination with each other so that more progress can be made within the gender equality movement

Reconciling Two Key Frameworks: Feminist Foreign Policy and Women, Peace & Security

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